Showing posts with label REPORTS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label REPORTS. Show all posts

Monday, October 22, 2012

Children in India 2012 - A Statistical Appraisal Report released

The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation released on 9 October 2012 a report named Children in India 2012 - A Statistical Appraisal, showcased the griming status of children in India. The report in its finding pointed out a growth of population by 181 million people, between 1991 to 2011 and at the same time also a huge reduction of 5.05 million of child in the age group of 0 to 6 years. And among this the decline in female population reportedly was 2.99 million and of male population was 2.06 million.

The report indicates a huge dip in the sex ratios of child, increased crime and troubles against the girl child and continued child labour that is constitutionally believed to be a social crime.

As per the report there was a 24 percent increase in reported crime against children in the year 2011. In this list of crime against children Uttar Pradesh took the first position with 16.6 percent share followed by states like Madhya Pradesh and Delhi. 47 percent kidnapping cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh and Delhi, where as 44.5 percent of child rape cases were reported in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh.

The report also presented a dip of child sex ratio from 945 to 914 in a period of two decades in between 1991 to 2011, when the graph of over-all sex ratio showcasing improvement climbed from 927 to 940. In this report the identified states with lowest sex ratio were Haryana (830), Punjab (846), Jammu and Kashmir (859), Delhi (866) and Chandigarh (867) in a chronological order. North-eastern states, like Meghalaya and Mizoram remained at top position with maximum (970).

This report is prepared by making the comparisons on different standards like rural vs urban, north vs south and northeast vs rest of India. The findings of the report presents a shocking data of no Northern state except Himachal Pradesh had its presence in the sex-ration chart above 900. It also presents an indicator of the birth-ration of a girl child as compared to that of the male births per 1000 to be 832 in Punjab and 848 in Haryana due to the impacts of female foeticide prevalent in the region.

Uttar Pradesh with 15.22 percent share in the chart of child labour stood at top position and is followed by Andhra Pradesh. Youthful crimes of children have also been raised as the issue of serious concern in the report, and Tamil Nadu with 672 cases per 1000, took the lead in the chart with its share of 23.7 percent as a whole.

Wednesday, June 6, 2012

Union Government announced to constitute Panel on Implementaion of Dharmadhikari Committee Report

The Union Government of India on 1 June 2012 announced to constitute an implementation panel to look into the ways of implementing the Dharmadhikari committee report on Air India and earstwhile Indian Airlines merger. The implementation panel will suggest the government of ways to implement the recommendations of Dharmadhikari Committee on issues including pay, allowances and career progression structure.
The implementation committee will submit its report within 45 days of its constitution. The committee will also be given the task of ‘level mapping’ of employees of Air India and erstwhile Indian Airlines.
The four-member Dharmadhikari committee on integration of nearly 29000 employees of Air India and Indian Airlines was headed by former Supreme Court judge Justice D. M. Dharmadhikari. The committee had submitted its report in January 2012. The committee had consulted all the concerned parties including pilots and management staffs before submitting its findings. The committee was constituted in March 2011.
Some of the major recommendations of Dharmadhikari committee are as follows:
•    Air India should continue to maintain two separate lines of seniority for pilots belonging to the pre-merger Indian Airlines and Air India
•    Pilots of both erstwhile carriers must be allowed to fly aircraft of all types
•    A 10-15 per cent salary cut for pilots and engineers to bring their salaries on par with industry standards
•    Uniform salaries for both sets of pilots
•    Cross-utilisation of pilots, which means Indian Airlines pilots can fly Dreamliners, and Air India pilots can fly Airbus aircraft after obtaining requisite endorsements and training
The Government of India in 2007 announced the merger of Air India with Indian Airlines. Subsequently a new company called the National Aviation Company of India Limited (NACIL) was established, into which both Air India (along with Air India Express) and Indian Airlines (along with Alliance Air) was merged. On 27 February 2011, Air India and Indian Airlines merged along with their subsidiaries to form Air India Limited. The merger did not go down well with the national carrier as it got trapped under a huge debt of 10 billion dollar. Besides the post merger days have also been marred with the reports of controversies and rifts among the management. The pilots of Air India have been on indefinite strike since 8 May 2012.

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Seoul Nuclear Security Summit Communique

We, the leaders, gathered in Seoul on March 26-27, 2012, renew the political commitments generated from the 2010 Washington Nuclear Security Summit to work toward strengthening nuclear security, reducing the threat of nuclear terrorism, and preventing terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials. Nuclear terrorism continues to be one of the most challenging threats to international security. Defeating this threat requires strong national measures and international cooperation given its potential global political, economic, social, and psychological consequences.
We reaffirm our shared goals of nuclear disarmament, nuclear nonproliferation and peaceful uses of nuclear energy. 
Committed to seeking a safer world for all, we also all share the objective of nuclear security. We recognize that the Nuclear Security Summit is a valuable process at the highest political level, supporting our joint call to secure all vulnerable nuclear material in four years. In this regard, we welcome the substantive progress being made on the political commitments of Participating States since the Washington Summit. 
We stress the fundamental responsibility of States, consistent with their respective national and international obligations, to maintain effective security of all nuclear material, which includes nuclear materials used in nuclear weapons, and nuclear facilities under their control, and to prevent non-state actors from acquiring such materials and from obtaining information or technology required to use them for malicious purposes. We likewise recognize the fundamental responsibility of States to maintain effective security of other radioactive materials. 
We reaffirm that measures to strengthen nuclear security will not hamper the rights of States to develop and utilize nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. 
Noting the essential role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in facilitating international cooperation and supporting the efforts of States to fulfill their nuclear security responsibilities, we further stress the importance of regional and international cooperation, and encourage States to promote cooperation with and outreach activities to international partners. 
Noting the Fukushima accident of March 2011 and the nexus between nuclear security and nuclear safety, we consider that sustained efforts are required to address the issues of nuclear safety and nuclear security in a coherent manner that will help ensure the safe and secure peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
We will continue to use the Washington Communiqué and Work Plan as a basis for our future work in advancing our nuclear security objectives. At this Seoul Summit, we agree that we will make every possible effort to achieve further progress in the following important areas. 
Global Nuclear Security Architecture
1. We recognize the importance of multilateral instruments that address nuclear security, such as the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), as amended, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSANT). We therefore encourage the universal adherence to these Conventions. We urge states in a position to do so to accelerate their domestic approval of the 2005 Amendment to the CPPNM, seeking to bring the Amendment into force by 2014. We acknowledge the important role of the United Nations (UN) in promoting nuclear security, support the UN Security Council Resolutions 1540 and 1977 in strengthening global nuclear security, and welcome the extension of its mandate. We will strive to use the IAEA Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) document and related Nuclear Security Series documents, and reflect them into national practice. 
2. We recognize the contributions since the 2010 Summit of international initiatives and processes such as the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) and Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction, within their respective mandates and memberships. We welcome the wider participation in the GICNT and the Global Partnership and value its extension beyond 2012. Noting the importance of strengthening coordination and complementarity among nuclear security activities, we welcome the proposal of the IAEA to organize an international conference in 2013. We welcome contributions from the industry, academia, institutes and civil society that promote nuclear security. 
Role of the IAEA
3. We reaffirm the essential responsibility and central role of the IAEA in strengthening the international nuclear security framework, and recognize the value of the IAEA Nuclear Security Plan 2010-2013. We will work to ensure that the IAEA continues to have the appropriate structure, resources and expertise needed to support the implementation of nuclear security objectives. To this end, we encourage States in a position to do so and the nuclear industry to increase voluntary contributions to the IAEA’s Nuclear Security Fund, as well as in-kind contributions. We also encourage continued IAEA activities to assist, upon request, national efforts to establish and enhance nuclear security infrastructure through its various support programs, and encourage States to make use of these IAEA resources. 
Nuclear Materials
4. Recognizing that highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium require special precautions, we reemphasize the importance of appropriately securing, accounting for and consolidating these materials. We also encourage States to consider the safe, secure and timely removal and disposition of nuclear materials from facilities no longer using them, as appropriate, and consistent with national security considerations and development objectives. 
5. We recognize that the development, within the framework of the IAEA, of options for national policies on HEU management will advance nuclear security objectives. We encourage States to take measures to minimize the use of HEU, including through the conversion of reactors from highly enriched to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, where technically and economically feasible, taking into account the need for assured supplies of medical isotopes, and encourage States in a position to do so, by the end of 2013, to announce voluntary specific actions intended to minimize the use of HEU. We also encourage States to promote the use of LEU fuels and targets in commercial applications such as isotope production, and in this regard, welcome relevant international cooperation on high-density LEU fuel to support the conversion of research and test reactors. 
Radioactive Sources
6. Taking into account that radioactive sources are widely used and can be vulnerable to malicious acts, we urge States to secure these materials, while bearing in mind their uses in industrial, medical, agricultural and research applications. To this end, we encourage States in a position to do so to continue to work towards the process of ratifying or acceding to the ICSANT; reflect into national practices relevant IAEA Nuclear Security Series documents, the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and its supplementary document on the IAEA Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources; and establish national registers of high-activity radioactive sources where required. We also commit to work closely with the IAEA to encourage cooperation on advanced technologies and systems, share best practices on the management of radioactive sources, and provide technical assistance to States upon their request. In addition, we encourage continued national efforts and international cooperation to recover lost, missing or stolen sources and to maintain control over disused sources.

Nuclear Security and Safety
7. Acknowledging that safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment, we affirm that nuclear security and nuclear safety measures should be designed, implemented and managed in nuclear facilities in a coherent and synergistic manner. We also affirm the need to maintain effective emergency preparedness, response and mitigation capabilities in a manner that addresses both nuclear security and nuclear safety. In this regard, we welcome the efforts of the IAEA to organize meetings to provide relevant recommendations on the interface between nuclear security and nuclear safety so that neither security nor safety is compromised. We also welcome the convening of the High Level Meeting on Nuclear Safety and Security initiated by the UN Secretary-General, held in New York on 22 September 2011. Noting that the security of nuclear and other radioactive materials also includes spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, we encourage States to consider establishing appropriate plans for the management of these materials.
Transportation Security
8. We will continue efforts to enhance the security of nuclear and other radioactive materials while in domestic and international transport, and encourage States to share best practices and cooperate in acquiring the necessary technologies to this end. Recognizing the importance of a national layered defense against the loss or theft of nuclear and other radioactive materials, we encourage the establishment of effective national nuclear material inventory management and domestic tracking mechanisms, where required, that enable States to take appropriate measures to recover lost and stolen materials. 
Combating Illicit Trafficking

9. We underscore the need to develop national capabilities to prevent, detect, respond to and prosecute illicit nuclear trafficking. In this regard, we encourage action-oriented coordination among national capacities to combat illicit trafficking, consistent with national laws and regulations. We will work to enhance technical capabilities in the field of national inspection and detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials at the borders. Noting that several countries have passed export control laws to regulate nuclear transfers, we encourage further utilization of legal, intelligence and financial tools to effectively prosecute offenses, as appropriate and consistent with national laws. In addition, we encourage States to participate in the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database program and to provide necessary information relating to nuclear and other radioactive materials outside of regulatory control. We will work to strengthen cooperation among States and encourage them to share information, consistent with national regulations, on individuals involved in trafficking offenses of nuclear and other radioactive materials, including through INTERPOL’s Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism Prevention Unit and the World Customs Organization. 
Nuclear Forensics
10. We recognize that nuclear forensics can be an effective tool in determining the origin of detected nuclear and other radioactive materials and in providing evidence for the prosecution of acts of illicit trafficking and malicious uses. In this regard, we encourage States to work with one another, as well as with the IAEA, to develop and enhance nuclear forensics capabilities. In this regard, they may combine the skills of both traditional and nuclear forensics through the development of a common set of definitions and standards, undertake research and share information and best practices, as appropriate. We also underscore the importance of international cooperation both in technology and human resource development to advance nuclear forensics. 

Nuclear Security Culture 
11. Recognizing that investment in human capacity building is fundamental to promoting and sustaining a strong nuclear security culture, we encourage States to share best practices and build national capabilities, including through bilateral and multilateral cooperation. At the national level, we encourage all stakeholders, including the government, regulatory bodies, industry, academia, non-governmental organizations and the media, to fully commit to enhancing security culture and to maintain robust communication and coordination of activities. We also encourage States to promote human resource development through education and training. In this regard, we welcome the establishment of Centers of Excellence and other nuclear security training and support centers since the Washington Summit, and encourage the establishment of new centers. Furthermore, we welcome the effort by the IAEA to promote networking among such centers to share experience and lessons learned and to optimize available resources. We also note the holding of the Nuclear Industry Summit and the Nuclear Security Symposium on the eve of the Seoul Nuclear Security Summit.
Information Security
12. We recognize the importance of preventing non-state actors from obtaining information, technology or expertise required to acquire or use nuclear materials for malicious purposes, or to disrupt information technology based control systems at nuclear facilities. We therefore encourage States to: continue to develop and strengthen national and facility-level measures for the effective management of such information, including information on the procedures and protocols to protect nuclear materials and facilities; to support relevant capacity building projects; and to enhance cyber security measures concerning nuclear facilities, consistent with the IAEA General Conference Resolution on Nuclear Security(GC(55)/Res/10) and bearing in mind the International Telecommunication Union Resolution 174. We also encourage States to: promote a security culture that emphasizes the need to protect nuclear security related information; engage with scientific, industrial and academic communities in the pursuit of common solutions; and support the IAEA in producing and disseminating improved guidance on protecting information. 
International Cooperation
13. We encourage all States to enhance their physical protection of and accounting system for nuclear materials, emergency preparedness and response capabilities and relevant legal and regulatory framework. In this context, we encourage the international community to increase international cooperation and to provide assistance, upon request, to countries in need on a bilateral, regional, and multilateral level, as appropriate. In particular, we welcome the intent by the IAEA to continue to lead efforts to assist States, upon request. We also reaffirm the need for various public diplomacy and outreach efforts to enhance public awareness of actions taken and capacities built to address threats to nuclear security, including the threat of nuclear terrorism. 
We will continue to make voluntary and substantive efforts toward strengthening nuclear security and implementing political commitments made in this regard. We welcome the information on the progress made in the field of nuclear security since the Washington Summit provided by the participants at this Seoul Summit. The next Nuclear Security Summit will be held in [the Netherlands] in 2014.

Nuclear Security Summit National Progress Report India

1) International Legal Instruments: India is party to all the 13 universal instruments accepted as benchmarks for a State’s commitment to combat international terrorism. India is party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and is amongst the few countries which have also ratified the 2005 amendment to the Convention. India looks forward to early entry into force of the 2005 Amendment. India is also Party to the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. India supports efforts for promoting the universality of these two Conventions.
2) International Atomic Energy Agency: India has consistently supported IAEA’s central role in facilitating national efforts to strengthen nuclear security and in fostering effective international cooperation. India is a member of the IAEA Commission on Nuclear Safety Standards and the Advisory Group on Nuclear Security. India has been actively involved in the preparation of the Nuclear Security Series documents produced by the IAEA. India has actively contributed to IAEA’s Action Plans on Nuclear Security, including third plan for 2010-2013. India as a partner to the IAEA-US Regional Radiological Security Partnership (RRSP) has been organizing international training courses in India under the aegis of the IAEA. India offered assistance through the IAEA for search and recovery of orphan radioactive sources in countries which were unable to effectively deal with them and had sought such assistance. India commends the Agency’s efforts to develop a Nuclear Security Information Portal and its efforts in developing a comprehensive set of guidance documents under the Nuclear Security Series.
We support the fifth revision of the recommendations contained in INFCIRC/225. We look forward to sustainable Agency activities in the area of nuclear security training and education and appreciate the assistance provided by the Agency to educational institutions in the area of Nuclear Security. India is a participant in the IAEA’s Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB), which was established in 1995 and disseminates information on confirmed reports about illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities and events involving nuclear radioactive materials to the States. India has been supportive of the 2003 IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and voluntarily adopted its provisions. India has also conducted 9 regional training seminars on nuclear security in cooperation with the IAEA. Conclusion of Practical Arrangements between GCNEP and the IAEA would reinforce India’s cooperation with the Agency.
3) UN and other mechanisms: Since 2002, India has piloted a resolution at the United Nations General Assembly on measures to prevent terrorists gaining access to Weapons of Mass Destruction. This resolution has been adopted by the General Assembly by consensus. India fully supports the implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, its extension resolution 1977, and the United Nations Global Counter Terrorism Strategy. India is also a party to Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism and has participated in its working groups on nuclear detection, nuclear forensics and response and mitigation. While nuclear security is being addressed at different foras, there is need to ensure that these efforts are mutually complementary and reinforce the related activities of the IAEA. We also cooperate with the Interpol’s Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism Prevention Unit and the World Customs Organization. India participated in the High Level Meeting called by the UN Secretary General on Nuclear Safety and Security on 22 September 2011.
4) National legal framework: The Indian Atomic Energy Act 1962 provides the legal framework for securing nuclear materials and facilities. Amendments to this Act are under consideration to further strengthen the legal basis for nuclear security measures. In June 2005, India enacted the Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act, 2005. Updating of the export control lists and related regulations are undertaken as a continuous ongoing process. India has adhered to NSG Guidelines and has expressed interest in full membership of the NSG and other international export control regimes. India is taking a number of measures to strengthen nuclear security. The Government has introduced a bill in Parliament for the establishment of an independent Nuclear Safety Regulatory Authority which will also enhance oversight of nuclear security and strengthen synergy between safety and security.
5) Reducing Nuclear Material: With regard to minimization of use of civilian HEU, the enriched uranium based fuel in the APSARA reactor was placed in a safeguarded facility in December 2010. APSARA will use indigenous fuel which is not high enriched uranium. However, there is a growing demand for large-scale production of isotopes for a range of applications- healthcare, industry, food and agriculture. India’s three stage nuclear programme is based on a closed nuclear fuel cycle, the principle of ‘reprocess-to-reuse’ and ensuring control over nuclear material at all stages. It is also important that technology is continually upgraded to develop nuclear systems that are intrinsically safe, secure and proliferation resistant. We have recently developed an Advanced Heavy Water Reactor based on Low Enriched Uranium and thorium with new safety and proliferation-resistant features.
6) International Cooperation: India has close cooperation with the IAEA’s Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). India has signed tripartite Agreements with IAEA and Sri Lanka and Namibia to donate our indigenously developed Cobalt teletherapy machine (Bhabhatron II) to these two countries as a step towards affordable treatment of Cancer. A similar machine was donated to Vietnam in 2008.
7) Global Centre for Nuclear Energy Partnership (GCNEP): At the first Nuclear Security Summit, India announced that it would establish a Global Centre for Nuclear Energy Partnership. We visualize this to be a state of the art facility based on international participation from the IAEA and other interested foreign partners. (Cooperation MOUs/Practical Arrangements have been concluded with some countries and the IAEA). To begin with, the Centre will consist of four Schools dealing with Advanced Nuclear Energy System Studies, Nuclear Security, Radiation Safety, and the application of Radioisotopes and Radiation Technology in the areas of healthcare, agriculture and food. The Centre will conduct research and development of design systems that are intrinsically safe, secure, proliferation resistant and sustainable, as we believe such technological solutions will strengthen nuclear security in the long run. The Centre will carry out research and development in radiation monitoring including development of detectors and nuclear emergency management. The Centre will also have state of the art training facilities for Indian and international participants and research by Indian and visiting international scientists. We are interested in development and conduct of courses in association with interested countries and the IAEA. An “off-campus” training course on Physical Protection was organized under GCNEP auspices in November 2011 for 25 participants, including 17 foreign nationals. Further courses planned for 2012 include: Prevention, Preparedness and Reponses involving malicious acts with radioactive materials, Medical Management, Safeguard Practices etc.
8) Nuclear Security Summit Process: India supports implementation of the Washington Summit Communiqué and Work Plan. India contributed to the NSS process, including by hosting a meeting of the Sherpas in New Delhi 16-17 January 2012